This Course discusses core ideas and concepts of both financial and managerial accounting. It by no means pretends to be comprehensive to any extent. But, being rather an accounting overview, it focuses on the issues that are most relevant and important for effective valuation of investment projects. The learners will gain insight into the essence of accounting. They will be able to use the obtained knowledge and skills to successfully advance in their career at a financial institution, as well as in the area of financial management at non-financial businesses.
To pursue a career in accounting, a more detailed study is strongly recommended. In Week 1 we discuss the scope of accounting and its two major areas — financial and managerial accounting. In the first part of the Course — Weeks 1 through 3 — we talk about financial accounting FA. Then we move on to the basic accounting principles, standards, and approaches — from double-entry bookkeeping to GAAP. Equipped with the general understanding of the financial accounting approach, we apply accounting procedures to transaction analysis.
Chapter 1: Welcome to the World of Accounting
Then we study revenue and expense recognition, and focus on accounts receivable and bad debts. Finally, you will learn how financial accounting deals with inventories. Accounting principles. Core Concepts of Accounting — Numbers and People. Additional provisions are created to cover goodwill warranty and extended warranty.
Revenues from extended warranty are recognized on a linear basis over the contract period unless there is evidence that some other method better represents the stage of completion. Electrolux is involved in disputes in the ordinary course of business. The disputes concern, among other things, product liability, alleged defects in delivery of goods and services, patent rights and other rights and other issues on rights and obligations in connection with Electrolux operations. Such disputes may prove costly and time consuming and may disrupt normal operations.
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In addition, the outcome of complicated disputes is difficult to foresee. RFR 2 prescribes that the Parent Company in the Annual Report of a legal entity shall apply all International Financial Reporting Standards and interpretations approved by the EU as far as this is possible within the framework of the Annual Accounts Act, taking into account the connection between reporting and taxation. The recommendation states which exceptions from IFRS and additions shall be made. Holdings in subsidiaries are recognized in the Parent Company financial statements according to the cost method of accounting.
The value of subsidiaries are tested for impairment when there is an indication of a decline in the value. One of the companies operating on a commission basis for AB Electrolux changed its functional currency to euro as from January 1, Translating differences thus arise as from The balance sheet of the commissioner company has been translated into SEK at year-end rates. The income statement has been translated at the average rate for the year.
Translation differences thus arising have been included in Other comprehensive income.
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Dividends from subsidiaries are recognized in the income statement after decision by the annual general meeting in the respective subsidiary. Anticipated dividends from subsidiaries are recognized in cases where the Parent Company has exclusive rights to decide on the size of the dividend and the Parent Company has made a decision on the size of the dividend before the Parent Company has published its financial reports. The consolidated financial statements, however, reclassify untaxed reserves to deferred tax liability and equity.
Conditions of Use
Tax on group contribution is reported in the income statement. Group contributions provided or received by the Parent Company are recognized as appropriations in the income statement. Shareholder contributions provided by the Parent Company are recognized in shares and participations which are subject to impairment tests as indicated above. The Electrolux trademark in North America is amortized over 40 years using the straight-line method. All other trademarks are amortized over their useful lives, estimated to 10 years, using the straight-line method.
The applied principle gives an estimated amortization period of 10 years for the system. The Parent Company reports additional fiscal depreciation, required by Swedish tax law, as appropriations in the income statement. In the balance sheet, these are included in untaxed reserves. The consolidated financial statements for the Group include the financial statements for the Parent Company and its directly and indirectly owned subsidiaries after: elimination of intra-group transactions, balances and unrealized intra-group profits and depreciation and amortization of acquired surplus values.
Definition of Group companies The consolidated financial statements include AB Electrolux and all companies over which the Parent Company has control, i. The following applies to acquisitions and divestments: Companies acquired are included in the consolidated income statement as of the date when Electrolux gains control. Companies divested are included in the consolidated income statement up to and including the date when Electrolux loses control. At year-end , the Group comprised operating units, and companies. Foreign currency translations Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions.
Items affecting comparability From January , Electrolux has discontinued the accounting practice of separately presenting items affecting comparability in the income statement. New or amended accounting standards applied in No new or amended accounting standards were applicable to Electrolux in New or amended accounting standards to be applied after The following new standards and amendments to standards have been issued and are applicable to Electrolux after Critical accounting policies and key sources of estimation uncertainty Use of estimates Management of the Group has made a number of estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities to prepare the financial statements in conformity with IFRS.
Asset impairment Non-current assets, including goodwill, are evaluated for impairment yearly or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Deferred taxes In the preparation of the financial statements, Electrolux estimates the income taxes in each of the tax jurisdictions in which the Group operates as well as any deferred taxes based on temporary differences.
Trade receivables Receivables are reported net of allowances for doubtful receivables. Post-employment benefits Electrolux sponsors defined benefit pension plans for some of its employees in certain countries. Restructuring Restructuring charges include required write-downs of assets and other non-cash items, as well as estimated costs for personnel reductions and other direct costs related to the termination of the activity. Warranties As is customary in the industry in which Electrolux operates, many of the products sold are covered by an original warranty, which is included in the price and which extends for a predetermined period of time.
Answers are provided on Connect under the instructor resources tab. Throughout each chapter in both Volumes 1 and 2, new end-of-chapter practice questions have been added in targeted areas, based on feedback from the market, where students would benefit from additional practice opportunities. Existing company scenarios have been expanded and updated to provide students with more information and updated examples to enhance student engagement.
The chapter content is IFRS compliant throughout Volume 1 and Volume 2; references are included where appropriate. Seventeen new Ethical Insight boxes have been crafted to highlight an ethical dilemma for each chapter based on a real-world example linked directly to issues within the chapter learning objectives. Instructors can take a moment to help students develop these critical professional skills. Real-world relevance is provided with actual businesses used as examples with several financial statement excerpts throughout Volumes 1 and 2, including issues relating to financial statement presentation and disclosure.
These real company names are bolded and highlighted in magenta at first mention to emphasize integration of accounting concepts with actual business practice. New Important Tip boxes have been added and are incorporated throughout the text to direct students' attention to critical concepts that students often miss in their initial reading of the text. Many of the Decision Insight boxes are new in this edition. This boxed feature describes accounting's role in ethics and social responsibility both reporting and assessing its impact.
Relating theory to a real-life situation piques interest and reinforces active learning. Chapter 9 on property, plant, and equipment is now included in both Volume 1 and Volume 2 to offer flexibility to instructors, depending on institutional course design.
Accounting Principles | McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Clarity of Presentation. Larson presents accounting principles content in a clear manner integrating text wording with corresponding visual exhibits that reinforces active student learning. Real World Focus. Larson integrates real business examples to reflect the most current information available, through detailed interviews with business people for the chapter opening vignettes, examples of ethical standards and treatments, and financial statements in the end-of-chapter material. This integration with real world companies helps engage students while they read.
Student-Centered Pedagogy. From text design elements such as the colour scheme to help students differentiate among the four key financial statements, to the integration of the Student Success Cycle that reinforces key steps toward understanding information a student has just read, Larson delivers unmatched student-centred pedagogy.